Introduction to the Material Science (Введение в материаловедение)

2 000 2 600 

В первых главах книги рассмотрены фундаментальные физические и химические
положения, непосредственно относящиеся к материалам; структура твердых тел. где
особое внимание уделено кристаллам, несовершенству структуры и твердым растворам.
Последние главы имеют инженерную направленность и образуют единое целое с
теоретическими вопросами материаловедения.

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CONTENTS
Chapter 1 MATERIALS FOR ENGINEERING 5
1.1 Material world 6
1.2 Types of Materials 7
1.3 Semiconductors 13
1.4 “Compound – structure – properties” 14
1.5 Processing materials 16
1.6 Selection of materials 18
Chapter 2 ATOMIC BONDING 21
2.1 Atomic structure 22
2.2 The ionic bond 24
2.3 Coordination number 28
2.4 The covalent bond 29
2.5 The metallic bond 32
2.6 The secondary bond ( Van der Waals) 33
2.7 Materials – the bonding classification 35
Chapter 3 CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE – PERFECTION 39
3.1 Seven Systems and Fourteen Lattices 40
3.2 Metal structures 42
3.3 Ceramic structures 45
3.4 Polymeric structures 53
3.5 Semiconductor structures 55
3.6 Lattice positions, directions, and planes 58
3.7 X-ray diffraction 64
Chapter 4 CRYSTAL DEFECTS AND
NONCRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE –
IMPERFECTION73
4.1 The solid solution – chemical
imperfection74
4.2 Hume-Rothery rules 76
4.3 Point defects – zero- dimensional
imperfections80
4.4 Linear defects, or dislocations – onedimensional
imperfection82
4.5 Planar defects – two-dimensional
imperfections86
4.6 Noncrystalline solids – threedimensional
imperfections93
4.7 Quasicrystals 99
4.8 Microscopy 103
Chapter 5 DIFFUSION 113
5.1 Thermally activated processes 114
5.2 Thermal production of point defects 117
5.3 Point defects and solid-state diffusion 121
5.4 Steady- state diffusion 129
5.5 Alternative diffusion paths 132
Chapter 6 MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR 137
6.1 Stress versus strain 138
6.2Ceramics & Glasses 150
6.3 Polymers 152
6.4 Elastic deformation 157
6.5 Plastic deformation 158
6.6 Hardness 162
6.7 Creep and stress relaxation 163
6.8 Viscoelastic deformation 171
6.9 Inorganic glasses 173
6.10 Elastomers 179
Chapter 7 THERMAL BEHAVIOR 183
7.1 Heat capacity 184
7.2.Thermal expansion 185
7.3.Thermal conductivity 187
7.4 Thermal shock 190
Chapter 8 FAILURE ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION 195
8.1 Introduction 196
8.2 Impact energy 197
8.3 Fracture toughness 200
8.4 Fatigue 203
8.5 Nondestructive testing 212
8.6.X-radiography 212
8.7 Ultrasonic testing 213
8.8 Other nondestructive tests 215
8.9 Failure analysis and prevention 216
Chapter 9 PHASE DIAGRAMS – EQUILIBRIUM
MICROSTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT219
9.1 The phase rule 220
9.2 The Phase Diagram 224
9.3 General binary diagrams 237
9.4 The lever rule 240
9.5 Microstructure development during slow
cooling243
9.6 Eutectic composition 244
Chapter 10 KINETICS – HEAT TREATMENT 247
10.1 Time – the third dimension 248
10.2 The TTT diagram 253
10.3 Hardenability 263
10.4 Precipitation hardening 265
10.5 Annealing 268
10.6 The kinetics of phase transformations
for Nonmetals 271
Chapter 11 METALS 277
11.1Ferrous alloys 278
11.2 Non-ferrous alloys 282
11.3 Processing of metals 285
Chapter 12 CERAMICS AND GLASSES 295
12.1 Ceramics – crystalline materials 296
12.2 Glasses – non-crystalline materials 299
12.3 Glass-ceramics 301
12.4 Processing of ceramics and glasses 304
Chapter 13 POLYMERS 307
13.1 Introduction to the polymers 308
13.2 Structural features of polymers 314
13.3 Thermoplastic polymers 319
13.4 Thermosetting polymers 319
13.5 Additives 319
13.6 Processing of polymers 320
Chapter 14 COMPOSITES 325
14.1 Fiber-reinforced composites 326
14.2Aggregate composites 330
14.3 Property averaging 332
14.4 How to control interfacial strength? 336
14.5 Processing of composites 338
Chapter 15 ELECTRICAL BEHAVIOR 341
15.1Charge carries and conduction 342
15.2Energy levels and energy bands 344
15.3Conductor 350
15.4 Superconductors 355
15.5 Insulators 358
15.6 Semiconductors 359
15.7 Electrical classification of
materials 363
Chapter 16 OPTICAL BEHAVIOR 365
16.1 Visible light 366
16.2Optical properties 367
16.3 Transparency, translucency, and
opacity 371
16.4 Color 372
16.5 Luminescence 374
16.6 Reflectivity and opacity of metals 376
16.7 Optical systems and devices 377
Chapter 17 SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS 385
17.1. Intrinsic, elemental Semiconductors 386
17.2. Extrinsic, elemental Semiconductors 389
17.3 The Temperature Variation of
Conductivity and Carrier Concentration 390
17.4 Compound Semiconductors 396
17.5 Amorphous semiconductors 396
17.6 Processing of semiconductors
17.7 Semiconductor Devices 397
Chapter 18 MAGNETICAL BEHAVIOR 403
18.1. Introduction to the magnetism 404
18.2. Hysteresis 407
18.3 Hysteresis in Magnetic Recording 408
18.4 Variations in Hysteresis Curves 408
18.5 Diamagnetism 409
18.6 Paramagnetism 410
18.7. Ferromagnetism 411
18.8. Relative Permeability
18.9. Magnetic Field 413
Chapter19 NANOTECHNOLOGY 415
19.1 Definitions and History 418
19.2 New materials, devices, technologies 421
19.3 Synthesis of nanostructured materials 431
19.4 Radical nanotechnology 438
19.5 Interdisciplinary ensemble 439
19.6 Potential risk 441
19.7 Famous USA Nanotechnology company 442
19.8 More about possible applications of
nanoparticles 445
Figures at Book chapters 449 
References 452

Glossary 453

Tests 460

Contents 470

Additional Information

Переплет

Мягкий, Твердый

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