Actual ecological aspects of petrochemical manufactures

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The educational manual is constructed in accordance with the requirements
of the credit technology program for masters studying in the specialty
“Petrochemistry”. The course is designed to study the basic concepts: oil
and gas as a source of environmental pollution, influence of emissions of oil
and gas on the state of the atmosphere, soil and water resources, ecological
characteristics of petrochemical industries, the main directions of protection
of nature and human health, ecological monitoring, comparative analysis of
various options of the solution of environmental problems of petrochemical
processes.
The educational manual contains a detailed glossary, questions for selfchecking
to each chapter and necessary illustrative material. It is intended for
students, masters, bachelors and doctoral students specializing in the field of
petrochemistry, chemical technology of organic substances, catalysis, ecology
and oil and gas business.

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Product Description

CONTENTS
TERMS AND ACRONYMS………………………………………………………………….3
INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………………..7
Chapter 1. THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF NATURE MANAGEMENT
AND HUMAN IMPACT ON THE BIOSPHERE……………………………………11
1.1. Basic concepts and definitions………………………………………………………..11
1.2. Ecology. Global ecology………………………………………………………………..14
1.2.1. Laws of ecology…………………………………………………………………………17
1.2.2. Industrial ecology……………………………………………………………………….19
1.3. Fundamentals of environmental management and low-waste
technologies……………………………………………………………………………………….21
1.3.1. Principles of waste-free technologies …………………………………………..22
1.3.1.1. Directions of creating low– and non-waste (waste-free)
production………………………………………………………………………………………….24
1.3.1.2. The main directions of development of wasteless and low-waste
technology in selected industries…………………………………………………………..25
Chapter 2. GENERAL CONCEPTS OF OIL AND OIL REFINING………….31
2.1. General information and some facts from history……………………………..31
2.1.1. Organization of countries – exporters of oil (OPEC)……………………….39
2.2. Oil refining ………………………………………………………………………………….41
Chapter 3. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL AND GAS ……..44
3.1. Physical properties of oil………………………………………………………………..44
3.2. Elemental composition of oil………………………………………………………….47
3.3. Hydrocarbon composition of oil. Oil fractions. Group composition…….53
3.4. Analysis of oil and oil fractions………………………………………………………60
3.5. Natural gas and hydrocarbon condensate systems……………………………..65
Chapter 4. BASIC CONCEPTS OF OIL AND GAS PROCESSING.
METHODS OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING ………………………………………..71
4.1. Primary processing of raw material (Separation processes)………………..71
4.1.1. Preparation of oil and condensate ………………………………………………..71
Contents 349
4.1.2. Oil as a raw material of distillation processes ………………………………..79
4.1.3. Preparation and processing of gas…………………………………………………79
4.2. General description of the refinery processes …………………………………..82
Chapter 5. OIL AND GAS EMISSIONS TO THE ATMOSPHERE,
SOIL AND WATER…………………………………………………………………………….91
5.1. Impact of oil and gas emissions on the state of nature and human
health…………………………………………………………………………………………………91
5.2. Climate change on earth……………………………………………………………….101
5.2.1. Impact of the forest number reduction on the ecology…………………..101
5.2.2. Global warming. Greenhouse gases…………………………………………….103
5.2.3. The effects of climate change……………………………………………………..107
Chapter 6. CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT……………… 110
6.1. Conclusions of the World experts…………………………………………………. 110
6.2. The documents of the concept of sustainable development………………. 112
6.2.1. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change…………. 113
6.2.2. Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention………………………. 115
6.2.3. Marrakech Accords. Verification at the international level…………….. 118
Chapter 7. ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF OIL
AND GAS EXTRACTION AND OIL PROCESSING
PRODUCTIONS……………………………………………………………………………….120
Chapter 8. SOURCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF
OIL COMPONENTS. HARMFUL EMISSIONS FROM
OIL PRODUCING AND REFINERIES……………………………………………….125
Chapter 9. OIL AND GAS PROCESSING ENTERPRISES OF
THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN – SOURCES OF HARMFUL
EMISSIONS……………………………………………………………………………………..136
9.1. Oil and gas fields in Kazakhstan……………………………………………………137
9.2. Refineries of Kazakhstan……………………………………………………………..142
9.3. Kazakhstan Gas Processing Plants…………………………………………………147
9.4. Environmental issues in Kazakhstan associated with oil and
gas production and processing…………………………………………………………….150
Chapter 10. OIL GAS AS A SOURCE OF AIR POLLUTION.
FLARE (TORCH) UNITS………………………………………………………………….155
10.1. Flare (torch) units………………………………………………………………………160
10.1.1. Classification of flare plants……………………………………………………..160
10.1.2. Impact of flare installations on humans, animals
and the entire environment………………………………………………………………….162
Chapter 11. THE MAIN AIR POLLUTANTS……………………………………….166
11.1. Sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide…………………………………………….166
11.2. Nitrogen oxides…………………………………………………………………………167
350 Actual ecological aspects of petrochemical manufactures
11.2.1. The N2O influence on the environment. Sources of N2O
in the atmosphere………………………………………………………………………………169
11.3. Carbon monoxide (II) ………………………………………………………………..170
11.4. Hydrocarbons …………………………………………………………………………..171
11.5. Particulate matter (PM) or suspended solids in the air…………………….173
11.6. Superecotoxicants………………………………………………………………………174
Chapter 12. HARMFUL EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES
OPERATED ON HYDROCARBON FUELS……………………………………….175
12.1. The main components of the exhaust gases of transport and
their influence on the environment and population…………………………………175
12.1.1. Emissions of Nitrogen oxides…………………………………………………..184
12.2. Euro-fuel standards on fuels……………………………………………………….190
Chapter 13. CHARACTERISTIC OF SOURCES OF EMISSIONS
OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTIONS……………………………………………………194
Chapter 14. FEATURES OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
OF PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES……………………………………………….208
14.1. Environmental issues in the production of plastics. Methods
of utilization and disposal of plastic waste…………………………………………… 211
14.2. Environmental characteristics of the production of elastomers.
Methods of waste utilization……………………………………………………………….222
14.3. Ecological characteristics of production of chemical fibers…………….228
14.4. Ecological characteristics of production of artificial dyes.
Manufacture of artificial mineral paints………………………………………………..231
Chapter 15. METHODS OF AIR PURIFICATION FROM
INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS……………………………………………………………….236
15.1. General information…………………………………………………………………..236
15.2. Air purification from industrial emissions…………………………………….238
15.2.1. Purification of gas emissions by the catalytic method………………….241
15.3. Decrease in gas emissions of various components…………………………247
15.3.1 Air purification from SO2 and H2S emissions ……………………………..247
15.3.2. Air purification from CO2…………………………………………………………251
15.3.3. Gases purification from NOx…………………………………………………….252
Chapter 16. SEWAGE OF OIL REFINERIES: COMPOSITION
AND WAYS OF NEUTRALIZATION…………………………………………………256
16.1. Composition and characteristics of sewage…………………………………..256
16.2. Processes of sewage treatment. Ways of their neutralization……………264
Chapter 17. CONTROL OF THE ENVIRONMENT FROM HARMFUL
EMISSIONS INTO THE AIR AND WATER BASINS.
ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING………………………………………………….273
17.1. Environmental Monitoring Instruments and Systems……………………..276
Chapter 18. ECOLOGICAL EXPERTISE OF PETROCHEMICAL
TECHNOLOGIES. ECOLOGICAL FORECASTING…………………………..282
18.1. Ecological expertise…………………………………………………………………..282
18.1.1. Principles of Environmental Expertise………………………………………284
18.2. Ecological Forecasting ………………………………………………………………287
18.2.1. Development of air pollution forecast……………………………………….289
18.2.2. Prediction of the state of surface and underground water……………..291
GLOSSARY……………………………………………………………………………………..293
LITERATURE………………………………………………………………………………….339

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Мягкий, Твердый

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