Chemistry and physics of petroleum, gas and coal. Sassykova L.R.

1 700 2 300 

The educational manual is constructed in accordance with the requirements of the
credit technology program for bachelors enrolled in the specialty «Chemical Technology
of Organic Substances». The course is designed to introduce with the basic concepts: the
history of the development of oil, gas and coal chemistry, the role and importance of oil,
gas and coal in the modern technical civilization, the physical and chemical properties of
oil, gas and coal – the main raw material for the production of chemical products and
energy; the theoretical foundations of the processes of oil refining, gas, and coal;
environmental problems of oil, gas and coal refining processes. For better assimilation of
educational material to each chapter were added questions to self-checking.
The educational manual is intended for students, bachelors, masters and doctoral
students specializing in the field of chemical technology of organic substances and
chemicals, petrochemicals, catalysis and oil and gas business.

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………. 3
1. IMPORTANCE AND ROLE OF OIL,
GAS AND COAL FOR HUMAN CIVILIZATION ………………….. 5
1.1. Oil, gas and coal as mined minerals, basic energy carriers
and raw materials for the production of valuable
chemical products …………………………………………………………………. 5
1.2. Importance of oil, gas and coal for civilization ………………………….. 8
1.3. The world reserves of oil, gas, condensate and coal …………………… 11
2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF OIL, GAS
AND COAL TECHNOLOGY. PLACE OF OIL
AND GAS AMONG CAUSTOBIOLITES ………………………………. 18
2.1. Prospects for the development of oil, gas and coal technology …….. 18
2.2. Oil, gas and coal as raw materials for the production
of valuable chemical products …………………………………………………. 19
2.3. Caustobiolites of coal and petroleum row …………………………………. 20
3. HYPOTHESES OF FORMATION OF PETROLEUM
AND COAL. STAGES OF FORMATION
OF COAL AND OIL …………………………………………………………….. 24
3.1. The main assumptions about origin of oil, gas and coal ……………… 24
3.2. Stages of oil formation from organic matters …………………………….. 26
3.3. Gas origin ……………………………………………………………………………. 29
3.4. Stages of solid combustible formation ……………………………………… 31
4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL ………………………………………… 34
5. THE ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF OIL.
CLASSIFICATION OF PETROLEUM AND
PETROLEUM PRODUCTS …………………………………………………… 38
5.1. The elemental composition of oil …………………………………………….. 38
5.2. Microelements in petroleum …………………………………………………… 39
5.3. Classifications of oils …………………………………………………………….. 43
5.4. Classifications of fuels …………………………………………………………… 46
5.5. Analysis of oil and oil fractions ………………………………………………. 47
6. THE HYDROCARBONS IN THE COMPOSITION
OF THE OIL. THE OIL FRACTIONS.THE GROUP
COMPOSITION …………………………………………………………………… 53

7. NATURAL GAS AND HYDROCARBON
CONDENSATE SYSTEM. THE COMPOSITION OF
NATURAL GAS. THE ORIGIN OF THE NATURAL GAS.
HYDROCARBON CONDENSATE SYSTEMS ………………………. 61
8. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF COAL…………. 66
8.1. General information ………………………………………………………………. 66
8.2. Physical properties of coal ……………………………………………………… 68
8.3. Chemical properties of coal ……………………………………………………. 69
9. SLATES (OR SHALES), NATURAL BITUMENS.
BITUMINOUS ROCKS OF KAZAKHSTAN ………………………….. 73
9.1. Slates (shales) ………………………………………………………………………. 73
9.2. Natural bitumens …………………………………………………………………… 75
10. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BASES AND METHODS
OF SEPARATION OF GASEOUS, LIQUID AND SOLID
TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
OF THEIR PROCESSING …………………………………………………….. 79
10.1. Methods with change of aggregate state …………………………………… 80
10.2. Methods of separation without change of aggregate state ……………. 86
11. THEORETICAL BASES OF PREPARATION
FOR PROCESSING OF GASEOUS, LIQUID AND
SOLID TYPES OF RAW MATERIALS. PRIMARY
PROCESSING OF RAW MATERIALS ………………………………….. 89
11.1. Features during the preparation and processing of gas.
Requirements imposed to the transported gas ……………………………. 89
11.2. Preparation of oil and condensate for processing ……………………….. 91
11.3. Theoretical bases of processes of distillation and rectification
of oil and gases. The basic concepts and terms ………………………….. 98
11.4. Features of oil as raw material of processes of distillation. ………….. 102
11.5. Preparation of high-viscosity oil, natural bitumen
and ozokerites ………………………………………………………………………. 104
12. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL BASES
OF FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION OF OIL-WATER
EMULSIONS ………………………………………………………………………. 108
12.1. Formation of oil-water emulsions ……………………………………………. 108
12.2. Destruction of oil-water emulsions. Thermal and
mechanical methods ……………………………………………………………… 111
12.3. Types of demulsifiers …………………………………………………………….. 113
12.4. Electrical methods of dehydration and desalting ……………………….. 114
13. THE MAIN PROCESSES OF SECONDARY
PROCESSING OF OIL …………………………………………………………. 117

13.1. General description of the processes ………………………………………… 117
13.2. Thermal and catalytic cracking processes …………………………………. 121
13.3. Reforming ……………………………………………………………………………. 126
13.4. Catalytic processes in hydrogen atmosphere.
Hydrotreating. Hydrocracking ………………………………………………… 129
13.5. Polymerization ……………………………………………………………………… 132
13.6. Alkylation ……………………………………………………………………………. 136
13.7. Isomerization ……………………………………………………………………….. 138
14. FUNDAMENTALS OF GASES PROCESSING ………………………. 147
15. PYROLYSIS AND COKING OF COAL …………………………………. 153
15.1. Pyrolysis ……………………………………………………………………………… 153
15.2. Coal coking ………………………………………………………………………….. 155
16. GASIFICATION AND COAL LIQUEFACTION.
THE SYNTHESIS OF LIQUID FUELS FROM
SOLID FUELS ……………………………………………………………………. 161
17. NEW TECHNOLOGIES OF DEEP PETROLEUM
REFINING AND GAS AND THE ANALYSIS OF
THE EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES. SYNTHETIC OIL ……………. 170
17.1. Processing of gas on synthetic fuel (GTL) ………………………………… 170
17.2. Synthetic oil …………………………………………………………………………. 171
18. DEEP OIL REFINING ………………………………………………………….. 175
19. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AT EXPLORATION, DRILLING
AND DEVELOPMENT OF OIL AND GAS FIELDS,
PREPARATION AND PROCESSING OF OIL AND GAS ……….. 178
20. THE MODERN PROBLEMS OF PROCESSING
OF OIL, GAS AND COAL ……………………………………………………. 182
BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………………….. 187

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